Algeria is a country in northwest Africa . Algeria , the middle of the Maghreb countries , just ahead of the DRC , the largest state of the African continent . It is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean , on the west by Mauritania, Morocco and occupied by Morocco Western Sahara , in the south on Mali and Niger and in the east on Libya and Tunisia . The country is named after its capital, Algiers . Algeria is independent since 1962 and has a semipräsidientielles government system .
In the northern part of Algeria , on the south coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains , lives the majority of the population . By far the larger southern part , called in Algeria Le Grand Sud is sparsely populated and is dominated by the desert regions of the Sahara .
Nearly all Algerians are Berber origin ; only about 40% acknowledge their Berber identity . Algeria befell during the Islamization in the 7th and 8th centuries a comprehensive Arabization of history, language and religion . Mainly as Arabs designating people ( 70 % ) and various Berber tribes ( 30 % ) , which are Arabized partially populate Algeria . In recent decades , these groups merge more and more with each other . Therefore, it is now difficult , an Algerian attributable to a particular tribe , as more and more have both Arabic and Berber roots . The population in Algeria is very unevenly distributed . 96 % of the population lives in the north to a fifth of the national territory . More than half already lives in cities , which are mainly in the coastal area .
The official languages are Arabic and Tamazight . In addition, French plays an important role as educational, commercial and transport language . State TV channels broadcast news programs and documentaries in French. Since 2002, in Algeria , the Berber language Tamazight a national language and, since 2016 an official language . in their radio programs as well as individual television programs are transmitted .